are a group of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear. Anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. There are a number of anxiety disorders: including generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and selective mutism.
Treatmentmay include lifestyle changes, counselling, and medications. Counselling is typically with a type of cognitive behavioural therapy. Medications, such as antidepressants or beta blockers, may improve symptoms.We also use Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), the current FDA Approved Protocol for the treatment of Depression and Anxiety.
is a state of low mood and aversion to activity or apathy that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings, and sense of well-being. People with a depressed mood can feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, angry, ashamed, or restless. They may lose interest in activities that were once pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details or making decisions, experience relationship difficulties and may contemplate, attempt or commit suicide.
Treatmentmay include lifestyle changes, counselling, and medications. Counselling is typically with a type of cognitive behavioural therapy. Medications such as antidepressants, may improve symptoms.
also known as manic depression, is a disorder with alternating periods of depression and elevated mood. During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy or irritable. During periods of depression there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, and poor eye contact amongst other symptoms.
Treatmentcommonly includes psychotherapy, as well as medications such as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics. Severe behavioural problems may be managed with short term antipsychotics or benzodiazepines. In periods of mania it is recommended that antidepressants be stopped.
is a disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines (called "rituals"), or have repetitive thoughts. People are unable to control either the thoughts or the activities for more than a short period of time. Common activities include hand washing, counting of things, and checking to see if a door is locked. Some may have difficulty throwing things out. These activities occur to such a degree that the person's daily life is negatively affected.
Treatment involves counselling, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and medications, typically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). CBT for OCD involves increasing exposure to what causes the problems while not allowing the repetitive behaviour to occur.
are a class of disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behaviour, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture. These patterns develop early, are inflexible, and are associated with significant distress or disability.
is a period of psychosis whose duration is generally shorter, not always non-recurring, but can be and not caused by another condition. The disorder is characterized by a sudden onset of psychotic symptoms, which may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behaviour, or catatonic behaviour. The symptoms must not be caused by schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder or mania in bipolar disorder. They must also not be caused by a drug (such as amphetamines) or medical condition (such as a brain tumour).
is a disorder characterized by persistent delusions and hallucinations, associated with abnormal social behaviour and failure to understand what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation.
The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, along with counselling, job training, and social rehabilitation. In more serious situations—where there is risk to self or others—involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were.
is a disorder in which the patient presents with delusions, but with no hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect. Delusions are a specific symptom of psychosis. Delusions can be "bizarre" or "non-bizarre" in content; non-bizarre delusions are fixed false beliefs that involve situations that could potentially occur in real life, such as being followed or poisoned. Apart from their delusions, people with delusional disorder may continue to socialize and function in a normal manner and their behaviour does not generally seem odd. The treatment involves a combination of antipsychotics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy for patients with delusional disorder can include cognitive behavioural therapy.
are disordersthat present with abnormal eating habits, they include binge eating disorder where people eat a large amount in a short period of time, anorexia nervosa where people eat very little and thus have a low body weight, bulimia nervosa where people eat a lot and then try to rid themselves of the food, pica where people eat non-food items, rumination disorder where people regurgitate food, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder where people have a lack of interest in food, and a group of other specified feeding or eating disorders.
Treatment can be effective for many eating disorders. This typically involves counselling, a proper diet, a normal amount of exercise, and the reduction of efforts to eliminate food. Hospitalization is occasionally needed. Medications may be used to help with some of the associated symptoms.
is a neurodevelopmental disorder. It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behaviour which is not appropriate for a person's age. These symptoms begin by age six to twelve, are present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, or recreational activities). In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance.
ADHD management recommendations vary and usually involve some combination of psychotherapy, counselling, lifestyle changes, and medications.
is a condition in which the use of one or more substances such as alcohol, nicotine (cigarettes) and drugs, leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
Treatment involves medications and psychotherapy. From the applied behaviour analysis literature, behavioural psychology, and from randomized clinical trials, several evidenced based interventions have emerged: behavioural marital therapy, motivational Interviewing, community reinforcement approach, exposure therapy, contingency management. They help suppress cravings and mental anxiety, improve focus on treatment and new learning behavioural skills, ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce the chances of relapse. A number of medications have been approved for the treatment of substance abuse. These include replacement therapies such as buprenorphine and methadone as well as antagonist medications like disulfiram and naltrexone in either short acting, or the newer long acting form. Acamprostate is a glutamatergic NMDA antagonist, which helps with alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
occurs when an individual is unable to adjust to or cope with a particular stress or a major life event. Since people with this disorder normally have symptoms that depressed people do, such as general loss of interest, feelings of hopelessness and crying.
Often, the recommended treatment for adjustment disorder is psychotherapy. The goal of psychotherapy is symptom relief and behaviour change. Counselling, psychotherapy, crisis intervention, family therapy, behavioural therapy and self-help group treatment are often used to encourage the verbalization of fears, anxiety, rage, helplessness, and hopelessness. Sometimes small doses of antidepressants and anxiolytics are used in addition to other forms of treatment.
is a disorder that can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person's life. Symptoms may include recurring nightmares/dreams and re-experiencing the traumatic situation, disturbing thoughts, feelings, mental or physical distress, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues and alterations in how a person thinks and feels. These symptoms last for more than a month after the event.
The main treatments for people with PTSD are counselling and medication. A number of different types of therapy may be useful. This may occur one-on-one or in a group.Antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor type are the first-line medications for PTSD.
is a subset of relationship counselling. It may differ from other forms of relationship counselling in various regards including its duration. Short term counselling may be between 1 and 3 sessions whereas long term couples therapy may be between 12 and 24 sessions. Couples therapy is more about seemingly intractable problems with a relationship history, where emotions are the target and the agent of change.
is a therapeutic program for anger prevention and control. It has been described as deploying anger successfully. Anger is frequently a result of frustration, or of feeling blocked or thwarted from something we feel to be important. Anger can also be a defensive response to underlying fear or feelings of vulnerability or powerlessness. Anger management programs consider anger to be a motivation caused by an identifiable reason which can be logically analysed, and if suitable worked toward.