Anxiety Disorders are a group of disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety and fear. Anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to immediate stimuli. There are a number of anxiety disorders: including Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Specific Phobia, Social Anxiety Disorder, Separation Anxiety Disorder, Agoraphobia, Panic Disorder, and Selective Mutism.
Treatment may include lifestyle changes, counselling, and medications. Medications, such as antidepressants or beta-blockers, may improve symptoms. Counselling may consist of behavioral therapy or as well as motivational therapy. At ReACH, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), the current FDA Approved Protocol for the treatment of Depression and Anxiety is also used.
Depressive Disorders are typically characterized by a state of low mood and aversion to activity or apathy that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being. People with a depressed mood can feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, angry, ashamed, or restless.
They may lose interest in activities that were once pleasurable, experience loss of appetite or overeating, have problems concentrating, remembering details, or making decisions, experience relationship difficulties, or may contemplate, attempt, or commit suicide.
Treatment may include lifestyle changes, counselling, and medications. Medications such as antidepressants may improve symptoms. Counselling may consist of behavioral therapy or as well as motivational therapy. At ReACH, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), the current FDA Approved Protocol for the treatment of Depression and Anxiety is also used.
Bipolar Disorders characterized by alternating periods of depression and elevated mood. During mania, an individual may behave or feel abnormally energetic, happy or irritable. During periods of depression people may experience crying spells, negative thoughts, and poor eye contact amongst other symptoms.
Treatment commonly includes psychotherapy, as well as medications such as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics. Severe behavioral problems may be managed with short term antipsychotics or benzodiazepines. In periods of mania, it is recommended that antidepressants be stopped.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders are a group of disorders wherein a pattern of unwanted thoughts and fears (obsessions) are present, that lead to repetitive behaviors (compulsions). These obsessions and compulsions interfere with daily activities and cause significant distress.
Treatment involves counselling, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and medications, typically selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). CBT for OCD involves increasing exposure to what causes the problems while not allowing the repetitive behavior to occur.
Personality Disorders are a class of disorders characterized by enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition, and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's culture. These patterns develop early, are inflexible, and are associated with significant distress or disability.
Brief Psychotic Disorder is a period of psychosis lasting a short duration, and non-recurring. The disorder is characterized by a sudden onset of psychotic symptoms, which may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behaviour, or catatonic behaviour.
Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by persistent delusions and hallucinations, associated with abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation.
The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, along with counselling, job training, and social rehabilitation. In more serious situations, where there is risk to self or others, involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were.
Delusional Disorder is a disorder in which the patient presents with delusions as the primary symptom. Delusions are a specific symptom of psychosis. Delusions can be "bizarre" or "non-bizarre" in content; non-bizarre delusions are fixed false beliefs that involve situations that could potentially occur in real life, such as being followed or poisoned.
Apart from delusions, people with delusional disorder may continue to socialize and function in a normal manner and their behavior does not generally seem odd. The treatment involves a combination of antipsychotics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy for patients with delusional disorder can include cognitive behavioral therapy.
Eating Disorders are a group of disorders wherein an individual presents with abnormal eating habits, such as Binge Eating Disorder where people eat a large amount in a short period of time, Anorexia Nervosa where people eat very little and thus have a low body weight, Bulimia Nervosa where people eat a lot and then try to rid themselves of the food via purging, Pica where people eat non-food items, Rumination Disorder where people regurgitate food, Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder where people have a lack of interest in food, and a group of other specified feeding or eating disorders.
Treatment typically involves counselling, a proper diet plan, a normal amount of exercise, and the reduction of efforts to eliminate food. Hospitalization may occasionally be needed. Medications may be used to help with some of the associated symptoms.
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by difficulties paying attention, hyperactivity, or short attention span, or being easily distracted. These symptoms typically begin by ages six to twelve, and have to be present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, or recreational activities) to be diagnosable. In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance. ADHD can be seen in both adults and children, with the presentation of symptoms varying amongst the two.
ADHD management recommendations vary from person to person, and usually involve some combination of psychotherapy, counselling, lifestyle changes, and medications.
Substance Use Disorders are disorders in which the use of one or more substances such as alcohol, nicotine (cigarettes) and drugs, leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
Treatment involves medications and psychotherapy. From the applied behavior analysis literature, behavioral psychology, and from randomized clinical trials, several evidenced based interventions have emerged: behavioral marital therapy, motivational Interviewing, community reinforcement approach, exposure therapy, contingency management. Treatment typically helps suppress cravings and anxiety, ease withdrawal symptoms and reduce the chances of relapse.
Trauma Related disorders can develop after a person is exposed to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, or other threats on a person's life. Symptoms may include recurring nightmares/dreams and re-experiencing the traumatic situation, disturbing thoughts, feelings, mental or physical distress, attempts to avoid trauma-related cues and alterations in how a person thinks and feels. These symptoms last for more than a month after the event.
The main treatments for people with a Trauma Related Disorder are counselling and medication. A number of different types of therapy may be useful such as Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, or Trauma Therapy. This may occur one-on-one or in a group.
Couples therapy is a form of psychotherapy for individuals in relationships who wish to address a wide range of relationship issues including recurring conflicts, feelings of disconnection, an affair, issues related to sex, or difficulties due to external stressors such as extended families.
Therapy often includes sessions designed to improve problem solving, build communication skills, and identify life goals and relationship responsibilities. Depending on the level of distress in the relationship, therapy can last from a few weeks to a few months.
Anger Management is a therapeutic program for anger prevention and control. It has been described as deploying anger successfully. Anger is frequently a result of frustration, or of feeling blocked or thwarted from something we feel to be important. Anger can also be a defensive response to underlying fear or feelings of vulnerability or powerlessness. Anger management programs consider anger to be a motivation caused by an identifiable reason which can be logically analyzed, worked on.
: An Adjustment Disorder occurs when an individual is unable to adjust to or cope with a particular stressor or a major life event.
Often, the recommended treatment for adjustment disorder is psychotherapy. The goal of psychotherapy is symptom relief and behavior change. Psychotherapy, crisis intervention, family therapy, behavioral therapy or group therapy are often used to encourage the verbalization of fears, anxiety, rage, helplessness, and hopelessness.